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What is the difference between Inferential and extrapolative comprehension?

What is the difference between Inferential and extrapolative comprehension?

In this section we move on to two other reading skills or techniques that are termed as inferential comprehension and extrapolative comprehension. The term inferential is the adjective form of the name inference.

The verb infer means to draw the meaning from something. On the other hand the term extrapolative draws from the verb extrapolative in the present context means to use facts already known for something in the future.

These two terms are used here as higher level reading skills. That is drawing inference is a higher ability than locating information from a text.

Similarly extrapolating information is a much higher ability then either locating information or drawing inferences because it goes to the level of applying information in another context or situation.

Inferential Comprehension

Deducible appreciation refers to the capability to draw conclusions or make interpretations grounded on the information presented in a textbook or discussion. 

This involves using one's background knowledge, environment suggestions, and logic chops to make consequences about what isn't explicitly stated. For illustration, if a character in a story is described as sweating and pulsing, an anthology might infer that the character is hysterical.

In the context of reading inferential means making use of syntactic, logical and cultural clues to discover the meaning of unknown elements. If these are words than word formation and derivation will also play an important part.

As an example let us take us word "pyol" at paragraph 14 of the story "The Martyrs Corner" The word is not there in your dictionary either in this situation as an intelligent reader you infer the meaning from the clues available for you from the context.

After dinner he tucked a betel leaf and tobacco into his mouth and slept on the pyol of his house we infer from the context that.

a) The word is a noun it appears as the head of a noun phrase "the pyol".

b) Being a noun it would refer to a thing on which one can sleep, lets say a piece of furniture.

c) There is only one item of "furniture" in the house "the pyol".

We draw inferences that pyol could be a raised platform something like a bed or a divan where Rama slept that night.

When dealing with a new text you are likely to encounter a number of unfamiliar words. In such cases it would be useful to make guesses and then to consult a dictionary to confirm the guess. Hence from the beginning it is vital to develop the skill of inference.

Again sometimes you may encounter a very familiar word but placed oddly in a sentence that could puzzle you. You may go to the first paragraph of the story "The Martyrs Corner" and locate the word "establishment" and the expression "vision sprung out of air".

These are two likely question that may appear in your mind.

a) What does the author mean by "establishment"?

b) Why is Ramas shop referred to as "a vision sprung out of air".?

You cannot locate the required information from the text. You will have to draw inference for the comprehension of the word "establishment" and the expression " a vision sprung out of air".

From the story you know that Ramas business was confined to some food items that just filled a tray which he balanced on his head while coming each day for his sales.

You don't call such a small business an "establishment" is it ironical? you try to infer why the author uses this word. Similarly you draw inferences why a shop is referred to as a "a vision sprung out of air" from the context.

A vision is a fleeting glimpse of something. Does not Ramas shop provide merely a fleeting glimpse when the author states "At eight you would not see him, and again at ten you would see nothing but between eight and ten he arrived sold his goods and departed you draw your inferences from this context.

What is the difference between Inferential and extrapolative comprehension?

Extrapolative Comprehension

Extrapolative appreciation, on the other hand, involves extending or projecting information beyond what's explicitly stated in a textbook or discussion. 

This involves using one's background knowledge and logic chops to make prognostications or draw conclusions about what might be coming or what might be true in a different environment. 

For illustration, if a news composition reports a trend in rising temperatures over the once decade, an anthology might decide that this trend will continue in the future.

As mentioned in 3.6 to extrapolate is to use facts already known from a piece of text for another situation. This situation may be outside the text but the text will provide you with a springboard to make use to the information.

For example you once again go back to the story in the appendix where there is an account of a fight that took place at the street corner where Rama had his business when you use the information contained in the story about the fight to describe a situation elsewhere.

You are extrapolating the information - applying it to look at another similar situation. Here another example, In one of the school readers there is a story about a king and his minister Tirumala.

The student while reading the story reflects upon the social life of the people in a monarchy and tries to compare it with his own social system.

Likewise after reading a poem the "As we rush, as we rush, in the train" the reader may be asked to write his experience's of a railway journey.

He reflects upon the poetic experience and tries to reconstruct his own experience. In other words his comprehension here can be extrapolative.

In summary, deducible appreciation involves making interpretations grounded on the information presented, while extrapolative appreciation involves extending information beyond what's explicitly stated.

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